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Noun [существительное] - is a word or group of words that refers to a person, place, or thing. There are common nouns [имена нарицательные] that refer to things and proper nouns [имена собственные] that refer to names of places or people.
E.g house [дом] , river [река], bridge [мост], Jessica [Джессика], parents [родители], London [Лондон]...

Verb [глагол] - is a word or group of words in a language that serve to indicate the occurrence or performance of an action, the existence of a state or condition, etc. One can also distinguish such nonfinite forms of a verb as participle [причастие] and adverbial participle [деепричастие].
E.g. to run [бегать], to dance [танцевать], to live [жить], to be [быть], to sing [петь]....

Adjective [прилагательное] - is a word or group of words that impute a characteristic to a noun or pronoun.
E.g. beautiful [красивый], orange [оранжевый], smart [умный], long [длинный]...
In the dictionary all Russian adjectives are of masculine gender.

Adverb [наречие] - a word or group of words that serves to modify a whole sentence, a verb, another adverb, or an adjective.
E.g. probably [возможно], easily [легко], very [очень], happily [счастливо]....
Some English adverbs have exactly the same form as adjectives whereas in Russian these are two different words.
E.g. She runs fast. - Она быстро бегает.
She is a fast runner. - Она быстрая бегунья.

Numeral [числительное] - a word or a group words that express a number. We can usually recognize cardinal numerals [количественные числительные] which denote the quantity of objects ,like, one, two, three, один, два, три, collective numerals [собирательные числительные] which signify that several persons or things are taken definitely and unitedly together, in the sense of — both, all three, all four, etc and ordinal numerals [порядковые числительные] which denote the serial order in which an object stands.

Pronoun [местоимение] - one of a class of words that serves to replace a noun phrase that has already been or is about to be mentioned in the sentence or context.
E.g. he [он], she [она], her [её], our [наш]
Pronouns can be subdivided into 9 subgroups in Russian. In my Russian 101 class we talk about:
-Personal pronouns [личные местоимения] as "he, she, I, you, we";
-Possessive pronouns [притяжательные местоимения] as "your, my, ours, theirs, her, his";
-Demonstrative pronouns [указательные местоимения] as "this, that"; and
-Interrogative pronouns [вопросительные местоимения] as "who, what, which, whose".
The other types of pronouns are
-Reflexive pronouns [возвратные местоимения] as "oneself [себя]";
-Negative pronouns [отрицательные местоимения] as "nobody [никто], nothing [ничто]";
-Indefinite pronouns [неопределённые местоимения] as "somebody [кто-то], something [что-то]";
-Definitive pronouns [определённые местоимения] as "every [каждый], any [любой]" and
-Relative pronouns [относительные местоимения]. Relative pronouns have exactly the same forms as the interrogative pronouns; however, they are used not to ask a question but to connect clauses. Thus in the sentence: "Кто пришёл" [Who has come?] the pronoun кто is interrogative, whereas in the sentence: "Я не знаю, кто пришёл" [I don't know who has come] кто is relative.

Preposition [предлог] - a word or group of words used before a noun or pronoun to relate it grammatically or semantically to some other constituent of a sentence.
E.g. on [на], in [в], about [о], with [с]...

Conjunction [союз] - any word or group of words, other than a relative pronoun, that connects words, phrases, or clauses.
E.g. and [и], but [но], while [в то время как]...

Particle [частица]- a function word, esp (in certain languages) a word belonging to an uninflected class having suprasegmental or grammatical function
E.g. not [не]

Interjection [междометие] - a word or phrase that is characteristically used in syntactic isolation and that usually expresses sudden emotion; expletive
E.g. Wow!, Oh!, Ну! Ой-ой-ой

It's essential to know parts of speech when studying a foreign language. One can compare it to knowing the difference between your vegetables and your fruit, your grains and your nuts, your dairy and your water. So please take a moment to learn your parts of speech and be proud of yourself that you did:)

@темы: учеба, информация


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